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Remote control phobia? This is for you.

Remote controls are very useful, but when you are controlling a new audio-visual system, is there a better way?

Usually, when a screen or projector is installed it will come with a remote in the box that can be used to turn the projector on or put the screen up and down, but these can be easily misplaced, leaving you with no way to easily control those devices. Therefore, we usually recommend a wall-mounted control panel, meaning that you can leave the remote controls locked away safely.

One particular product we use a lot is a small wall-mounted panel that takes away the need for remote controls, by becoming a central controller for the visual system. These controllers come in a range of sizes to suit the size of the system and some have additional features such as volume controls which can be programmed to control background music volume, for example. Ultimately, you still need to keep the remote controls handy as a backup - better to have them and not need them, as the saying goes.

Why is it better than lots of remotes?

  • Centralised Control: These controllers allow for centralised control of multiple AV components, including projectors and input selection from a single point. This simplifies operation and reduces the need for multiple remote controls.
  • Making life easy: Wall controllers can automate various functions, such as turning on or off the projector, adjusting brightness and volume, and selecting input sources. This streamlines the setup process and enhances user experience. In other words, it makes controlling your AV system much easier, and that is always a good thing.
  • Integration: The wall control panels we use are designed to integrate with various AV and automation systems, making them compatible with a wide range of equipment. This means they are useful in all sorts of installations.
  • User-Friendly: This is especially important in environments where multiple groups of people will be using the system, such as village halls or education installations. Each button function can be labelled accordingly, making the process of operating the system self-explanatory.

But what if I really like remote controls?

There are not many people who feel that way, but we want to be inclusive, so if you do love lots of remote controls, here are some reasons why you might want to stick with them over a control panel.

  • Cost: High-quality controllers can be relatively expensive, particularly when factoring in installation and programming costs. This cost may not be justifiable for smaller or budget-conscious setups.
  • Complexity: Setting up and programming SY controllers can be complex and time-consuming. It often requires specialized knowledge and expertise, so unless you are tech-savvy, you will need to call in the professionals.
  • Compatibility: While SY controllers are designed to work with a wide range of AV equipment, compatibility issues can still arise, especially with older or non-standard devices.
  • They can go wrong: SY controllers rely on technology, which can sometimes fail or experience glitches. They also rely on power supplies, which can get damaged by power surges or simply overheat due to age. When technical issues occur, they can disrupt presentations or events until resolved.
  • Maintenance: Regular maintenance and updates may be required to ensure that the SY controller and associated equipment function smoothly. This can lead to ongoing costs and potential downtime during maintenance activities.


In conclusion, wall-mounted AV controllers are user-friendly, simplify control of equipment and will bring all system control to one central location. While you still need to keep the remotes safe, you will not need to juggle them to turn your system on, but instead walk over to one point and within 2 buttons, the projector or screens will be on and the input source selected.

When installing microphones on lecterns or pulpits, we typically opt for a type of microphone known as a gooseneck microphone. These microphones are characterised by their elongated design and adjustable tops, allowing them to be pointed in any direction. This feature enables the speaker to position themselves freely in front of the microphone, eliminating the need to stand in a specific spot.

The gooseneck is plugged in on the lectern or pulpit via an XLR connection point that is discreetly wired and secured to the top of the lectern. The benefit of this is that it can be unplugged and packed away. 

Here are some pros and cons of using a gooseneck microphone:


  1. Directional Flexibility: Gooseneck microphones can be easily adjusted and positioned to point directly at the sound source. This makes them ideal for situations where precise directional control is required.
  1. Reduced Feedback: Their focused pickup pattern and directional control help reduce the likelihood of feedback in live sound reinforcement setups, such as in churches.
  1. Unobtrusive Design: Gooseneck microphones are often designed to be discreet and blend into the environment, making them less visually obtrusive than other types of microphones. Not needing a floor stand avoids clutter.
  1. Durable: They are typically built with sturdy materials and can withstand a fair amount of physical stress and bending, which is useful in high-traffic or busy environments.


  1. Limited Mobility: While the flexibility of the gooseneck allows for precise positioning, it also restricts the microphone's mobility compared to handheld or lapel microphones. 
  1. Size and Aesthetics: While the discreet design can be a pro, it can also be a con, as some users may find the appearance less appealing or may struggle to locate the microphone in a crowded room.
  1. Installation and Mounting: Installing gooseneck microphones can be more involved than simply placing a microphone on a stand. They often require specialised mounts or fixtures.
  1. Cost: High-quality gooseneck microphones can be more expensive than other types of microphones, especially when you factor in the cost of accessories like mounts.


Gooseneck microphones are perfect for use on a lectern or in the pulpit, they allow for any speaker to position the adjustable head in any way they need so they do not have to stand in a specific spot, goosenecks can be unplugged for storage and security and plugged back into their XLR mount with ease. They are perfectly designed for capturing speech. They can also perform well in capturing acoustic, especially orchestral instruments.

 When it comes to audio systems in houses of worship, choosing the right microphone is crucial for delivering clear and impactful sound. Two popular options are headset and lapel microphones. In this blog post, we will discuss the pros and cons of each to help you make an informed decision for your church's audio needs.

Headsets are worn around the head, with a small capsule positioned near the mouth. Here are some pros and cons of using headset microphones in a house of worship setting:

  1. Stability: Headsets provide excellent stability, ensuring that the microphone remains in place even during dynamic movements, such as preaching or singing.
  2. Hands-Free: With a headset, the speaker or performer has their hands completely free, allowing for natural gestures, holding props, or using presentation aids.
  3. Consistent Sound Quality: Since the capsule remains consistently positioned near the mouth, the sound quality remains consistent throughout the performance or sermon.
  1. Visibility: Some individuals may find headset microphones more visible or intrusive, especially if the microphone boom is in front of the face.
  1. Comfort: Wearing a headset microphone for an extended period may cause discomfort for some individuals, particularly if they are not accustomed to wearing headsets.
  1. Limited Applications: Headsets are primarily designed for speech and vocal performances. They may not be as suitable for certain musical instruments or group performances.

Lapel or lavaliers are small, clip-on microphones that are typically attached to the collar or lapel of the speaker's clothing. Let's explore the pros and cons of using lapel microphones in a house of worship:

  1. Discreetness: Lapels are small and discreet, making them less noticeable to the congregation. This can be particularly beneficial for speakers or performers who prefer a minimalist appearance.
  1. Versatility: Lapels can be used in various applications, including speeches, sermons, musical performances, and panel discussions.
  1. Natural Sound: Placed close to the speaker's mouth, lapel microphones capture a natural sound without obstructing the performer's face or gestures.
  1. Pickup of Environmental Noise: Due to their placement, lapel microphones may pick up more ambient or environmental noise, such as rustling clothing or background sounds. This can affect the overall sound quality.
  1. Limited Movement: Since lapel microphones are fixed to the clothing, excessive movement or turning away from the microphone may result in inconsistent sound levels or loss of audio clarity.
  1. Potential for Clothing Interference: Lapel microphones can sometimes be accidentally covered or obstructed by clothing, affecting the sound quality or causing unwanted rustling noises.


Choosing between headset and lapel microphones for your house of worship depends on several factors, including the specific needs of your speakers, the type of performances or sermons, and personal preferences. Headset microphones offer stability and hands-free operation, while lapel microphones provide discreteness and versatility. 

Consider the pros and cons outlined in this blog post, and test different options to find the microphone solution that best suits your church's audio requirements. By investing in the right microphone, you can enhance the worship experience and ensure clear and impactful sound for your congregation.

Faculties, what are they? 

You may have heard someone say when discussing a new heating system, or moving a piece of ecclesiastical furniture in your church, “You’re going to need a faculty for that!”. A faculty is the equivalent of getting planning consent in the Church of England.

Churches are subject to planning law as much as any other building, however in the church of England this planning control has been seeded from the local council to the diocese.

This system also covers the additional demands of listed building or conservation area consent. Because of this, the system is quite involved and no less stringent than conventional planning consent.

However don’t feel too daunted, there is plenty of help available throughout the process. 

Do we need a faculty?

For most things yes, for example, objects in the church as well as the building fabric and trees and monuments in the churchyard. Each diocese has a ‘De minimis’ (small matters) list of things exempt from faculty, although you still may need approval from the archdeacon for these.

Are there different types of faculty?

List A just a log, no formal permissions are required, e.g. the gutters were cleared of leaves.

List B matters can be signed off by your archdeacon, often following consultation with the relevant DAC advisor. Not requiring a formal meeting of the whole committee.

For example, a new or replacement sound system requires only list B consent whereas a projection or streaming system requires a full faculty.

If you have a whole audio-visual project in mind, it is worth getting advice on whether to mention the sound system in the full faculty or just apply for list B for that separately.

This can allow you to go ahead with the sound system much quicker, rather than having it held up waiting for the full faculty permissions only required for projection and streaming.

As previously mentioned if you are thinking of a visual system typically comprising a projector and screen plus some flat screens for blind spots, or a camera system for streaming, you will have to go through the full faculty process.

This does involve some work explained in the next section and it helps considerably if your supplier is used to working in churches as they will generally come up with a scheme or options that they know through experience will have a good chance of being approved.

This can save a good deal of time and to and fro with the DAC and lead to a project that keeps everyone on board with the best balance of performance and aesthetics.

How do we apply for a faculty?

Go to https://facultyonline.churchofengland.org/home this is the home page of the Church of England online faculty system.

The first thing to do is create your own online account and link it to your church building. There is an extensive help section with guides on how to create the necessary documentation to support your application.

The most important of these is the User Manual for the system for parishes.

There are also some useful video resources from Lincoln and Carlisle dioceses, search for ‘church faculty system’ on YouTube.

What should we do first?

Before you start wading through the online system, a good idea is to prepare a brief summary of what you would like to do and how photos help and send it to the DAC secretary.

Then arrange a follow-up phone call to discuss this information.

This will give you useful pointers as to how to frame your faculty submissions and potential pitfalls that can be avoided at this early stage, saving time later.

DAC secretaries positively encourage this approach.

What do you have to do to apply for a faculty?

If you are looking to apply for a faculty, then you will need to complete an amount of formal paperwork and submit plans, specifications and photographs to explain the works proposed.

You will usually need to consult your church architect for advice and have a resolution from the PCC in place.

Who decides if our faculty is granted?

After following all of the online steps and asking your DAC for final advice your chancellor will look at your application and decide whether to grant a faculty or not.

If your project has attracted opposition, then the chancellor may ask to hold a consistory court hearing before making a decision.

How do we improve our chances of getting a faculty without delays?

Before starting any work in the church it is always worth asking your DAC as they will be able to advise you on the best course of action going forward.

The speed of your application being processed also depends on what you would like to do, but the DAC will advise you all the way. 

Is a faculty required for every CofE church building?

There are a very small number of listed churches which are not subject to Faculty Jurisdiction and therefore need to apply for Listed Building Consent via their Local Planning Authority for works to their buildings.

But if you have any concerns about whether you need a faculty or not, contact the DAC for advice.

Faculty-free systems or temporary systems are audio or video systems that don't need to be fixed to anything e.g. speakers on speaker stands, a portable rack on wheels or a projector on a stand. 

The main benefit to these systems is that they are ‘’faculty-free’’, you can set one of these systems up without a faculty. This being said though, for any events or events like this it is always best to notify the DAC beforehand, you can do this on their online portal (More on faculty application below).

  • Cost-Effective: Temporary audio systems are often more affordable upfront than permanent installations. They can be a practical solution for smaller churches or events with limited budgets.
  • Flexibility: Temporary systems can be set up and removed quickly, allowing for flexibility in accommodating various types of events and changing needs. They are ideal for churches that host different activities in the same space.
  • Portability: Portable audio equipment can be used in different locations within the church or even outside the church premises if needed. This mobility can be an advantage for outreach programs or outdoor events.
  • Ease of Maintenance: Temporary systems may require less maintenance since they are not exposed to the same wear and tear as permanent installations. Repairs or upgrades can also be easier to manage.
  • Quick Installation: Setting up a temporary audio system is generally faster than installing a permanent one. This can be advantageous when time is a constraint.
  • No fixings: Temporary systems don't need to be fixed to anything, this means there are no fixings or holes that need to be made in the church so you wouldn't need a faculty 

Cons of Using a Temporary Audio System in a Church:

  • Limited Quality: Temporary audio systems may not provide the same audio quality, coverage, or features as permanent installations. This limitation can impact the overall worship experience and event quality.
  • Aesthetics: Temporary setups may not blend well with the church's interior design and aesthetics, potentially affecting the visual appeal of the worship space.
  • Reliability: Portable equipment may be more prone to technical issues or failures compared to fixed, permanent installations. This can lead to interruptions during church services or events.
  • Sound Consistency: With temporary systems, achieving consistent sound quality and coverage can be challenging, especially in larger or acoustically challenging church spaces.
  • Long-Term Costs: While temporary systems have a lower initial cost if they are used frequently, the cumulative rental or maintenance costs over time may exceed the cost of investing in a permanent audio system.
  • Setup and Teardown Time: Setting up and dismantling a temporary audio system for each event can be time-consuming, which may not be practical for churches with frequent activities.


It depends on what you are looking for, if you are having a one-time event then a faculty-free temporary system will probably be best for you, but if you know that there are going to be a lot of events or you want to use the system for services every week then you will most likely need a more permanent solution. It is always worth talking to a specialist who deals with audio-visual systems in churches. 

To read more about pertinent installations see our article here.

Scheduling videos can seem like a terrifying task, so luckily for you, we have created a short guide to walk you through scheduling a live-stream video on Facebook.

  1. Navigate to your Facebook home page - This is where you see the news feed from all your friends, and you have the option to write a post to share with the world.
  2. Underneath the box to type your thoughts, there should be a Live video option. It will look like this.
  3. You will then be taken to another page, where you will have the option to Create a live video event. At the bottom of this box, you will find a Select button. Press this button.
  4. This screen is where you can then add in the details that will make that video identifiable from the others on your channel (e.g. by adding a title) and where you can set the start and end time of the live stream. Once you have filled in all the details, click on the Next option.
  5. Click on the Create Event button.
  6. You will then see a box appear to tell you that you have successfully created the live-streaming event, and will tell you the time that the video has been scheduled for. You then need to select Set Up Live Video.
  7. You will be given a choice of video sources; either your webcam or the other option, we want to select, will be Streaming Software. This means that Facebook will look for external hardware to provide a video feed at the time you have set the video to go live.
  8. This step may be necessary for your organisation, or it might not be, so it is worth briefly explaining the mysterious Stream Key. A stream key is a unique code that allows streaming equipment to communicate with the Facebook channel it is to stream to. Each channel has a unique code so that the equipment always sends the video feed to the correct place, otherwise, it has no way of knowing where to send the video stream. As default, Facebook will use a new unique code each time you create a new video, and this is useful in some situations, but with most of our system, we advise using a persistent stream key, which means that the key remains the same for every live video you create. However, you need to turn this option on by entering the advanced settings. It's important to note that if you use a persistent key, you can only schedule a video up to 24 hours in advance.
  9. Lastly, on the left-hand side of this page, you can choose where your video is posted. For example, you can choose for it to appear in a particular place, rather than your timeline.

So there you have it, our short guide to scheduling a video.

Over the years, the technology in loudspeakers has evolved greatly, especially in the area of creating speaker cabinets which allow for the sound to be thrown over increasingly large distances.

Before getting into the detail of what makes line array loudspeakers clever, we need to start by explaining the difference between them and conventional loudspeakers, plus some handy terminology. 

Conventional speakers have been around for years, with the first loudspeaker appearing in 1876, which was patented by Alexander Graham Bell, who invented it for intelligible speech for use in the first telephones. They come in many different shapes and sizes but are most commonly used for band PA systems or are installed for background music in venues such as restaurants, bars and nightclubs.

The size of a loudspeaker depends on the size of the driver. This driver is not the sort who will chauffeur you to a dinner party, but a crucial element of a speaker. It is often also referred to as a loudspeaker cone.

Sound from conventional speakers tends to spread out in a wide pattern, resulting in uneven coverage and potential sound reflections and interference. Often, speakers have a 90 x 90 dispersion, which means that the sound travels 90 degrees vertically and 90 degrees horizontally from the front of the speaker. This is fine in many locations, but for churches and large, reverberant spaces, this hinders sound quality and speech intelligibility.

So dispersion is how wide or narrow the sound radiates from a loudspeaker. The narrower the dispersion, the more controlled the sound from the speaker is going to be.

The primary advantage of line array speakers over conventional ones lies in their ability to control sound dispersion. These utilise a technique called vertical line array wavefront shaping to achieve a controlled dispersion pattern. That’s quite a mouthful, so what does it mean?

Simply put, the drivers in the speaker are precisely arranged in a vertical line within the cabinet, and each one is carefully angled so that when sound waves are emitted from the driver, the sound waves sum together to push the sound further out from the speaker and in a more directional manner.

Some (very expensive) line array loudspeakers, both in the installed and live performance markets, allow you to change the directivity of each speaker, which gives the sound engineer incredible control over the dispersion of sound. This is useful in particularly reverberant spaces such as a cathedral, where the speakers can be tuned to focus on the audience with the accuracy of a laser beam, maximising the coverage across the congregation and minimising issues caused by the sound reflecting off the large space.


Overall, the controlled dispersion of line arrays helps to minimise echoes and reflections, leading to improved speech intelligibility, especially in acoustically challenging environments. However, it is important to note that while line array speakers excel in certain applications, they may not always be the best choice for smaller venues or situations where precise control over sound dispersion is not a priority.

Reverberation is probably a word you have heard many times, but what exactly is it and is it a good thing? Can we get rid of reverberation and if so, how? This article will explore all of those questions and more, to leave you clued up on reverberation.

First things first, are reverberation and echo the same thing? They are similar but not quite the same thing. Reverberation is generally a jumbled mix of decaying sounds without discernible syllables (in the example of speech). 

An echo is a completely discernible sound, word or syllable which by definition is a reflection of a single surface with a reflection time long enough to be heard after the source has stopped and can be distinguished as a separate sound.

Sound travels in waves, and like the waves in the sea, these sound waves have energy. When sound waves are generated by a voice, instrument or any other audible source they radiate out from that source and strike objects and walls around them. Hard surfaces reflect most of the sound energy and (acoustically) soft surfaces absorb, transmit and reflect depending on the frequencies and the material. The amount of absorption depends on the structure of the material, but, more on that later.

So what happens when sound is reflected from a surface? Sound waves travel at around 300 metres per second. That seems incredibly fast to us (roughly 670 mph!!) but it is slow when compared to the speed of light, which travels 1 million times faster. That is why we see the flash of fireworks before we hear the ‘bang’ from them.

The result of this is that in a conventional room, the sound energy reflects multiple times off the surfaces in the room, losing energy as it does so. Depending on the (acoustically and usually physically) hard or soft nature of the surfaces, more or less energy will be lost when each of these reflections occurs; the harder the surfaces, the less energy is absorbed and so the longer the sound takes to die away.

(Picture of a graph showing the speed of sound vs light)

What actually happens to sound when it is absorbed?

If you cast your minds back to your high school science classes, you would have been taught that energy never dies, it only changes from one form to another. In the case of sound absorption, as the sound energy passes into and through an absorbing medium, the friction caused by the medium on the movement of the particles strips them of energy, which is turned into minute amounts of heat.

So is reverberation a problem?

In short, it depends on the situation. Reverberation is not necessarily a problem, and sometimes it is a positive boon. When it comes to opera, classical music, organ and choral music, it could be said to be essential to the performance of the genre. Performances like these which are generally acoustic in nature (ie not amplified or performed through a microphone) rely on reflected sound for the performers to hear themselves and to add desirable reflections that sustain and ‘fill out’ the performance.

However, for amplified music and particularly the spoken word, reverberation is positively detrimental. The later reflections are still loud enough to cause the ear and brain difficulties in interpreting what is being said. With the diction of the speaker being smeared by the elongation of consonants especially, an increasing amount of brain power is required to decode and understand. 

Imagine a snare drum beat and instead of being short and sharp, it is elongated so that it hasn't died away completely before the next beat happens. The further away from the source of the original sound you are, the less of it you hear directly and the more you hear the result of the reverberation. The point at which intelligibility dramatically falls away is called the Critical Distance. At this distance, you are hearing an equal amount of direct sound and reflected (reverberant) sound.

How do we measure reverberation?

Reverberation is measured in seconds and this measurement is called the reverberation time (RT). It is defined as the time it takes for the original sound level usually of a short loud sound such as a balloon burst or gunshot, to die away to 1 millionth (-60dB (Decibels)) of the original peak level.

So can you define an ‘ideal’ reverberation time?

The ‘ideal’ reverberation time depends completely on the venue! For cinema and the spoken word an RT (reverberation time) of around 0.5 seconds is the aim, however, the RT is usually much greater unless a room or hall has been designed from the ground up or has had a lot of absorption added.

For contemporary music genres like rock or modern worship songs around 1-1.2 seconds is good.

For classical music, 1.6-2.3 seconds would be considered ideal, and for organ music 2-4 seconds is desirable.

So you can see that if you have a venue with multiple uses there are conflicting demands on the RT. However for multi-use venues generally an RT of around 1.2 seconds is a good compromise for intelligible speech and music that is not too dry. We can always add reverberation electronically but it is not possible to take it away in this manner.

Some venues have sliding panels and heavy drapes to allow for a change in the RT depending on the performance type, but for most venues, these would be seen as too expensive or impractical to achieve. 

(Photo of ideal reverberation times for different events)

How do we reduce reverberation time to improve intelligibility?

Very few public buildings in the UK were designed with more than a passing nod to acoustics, certainly not your average village hall or community building. We have worked in brand-new spaces where the acoustics are terrible and could have been designed with better acoustics in mind. 

The typical treatment is to add absorption to reduce the reflections and therefore reduce the reverberation time. This can be incredibly effective, even adding a few square metres of panel absorbers can turn a difficult space into an acoustically comfortable one.

Panel absorbers are the most popular non-construction solution to excess reverberation. They are generally large flat fabric-covered panels of acoustic-grade mineral wool or other fibrous material. They are available in matching or complementary colours so can be discrete or made into a feature. The sizes are generally chosen to fit in with spaces between windows and other features in the room, although they can also be fixed to the ceiling or ‘flown’.

The number of absorbing panels required is calculated by measuring the volume of the room and the reverberation time to calculate the current amount of incidental absorption. Then these figures are plugged back into the same formula to calculate the required additional absorption to bring the RT time down to the desired level.

In this way, what was once a space where it was difficult to hold meetings, concerts or other gatherings, can be tamed and turned into an acoustically comfortable space. The great thing about acoustic treatment is that it doesn't use any power, doesn't wear out and works all the time, whether you are using amplification or not.

There are other cases where acoustic treatment would be very useful, such as video conferencing rooms, where you can often hear as much of the room as you can the person you are listening to.

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